The nature of the volcanic hazard – type, frequency, magnitude Results: Demographic characteristics and underlying disease rates were similar in the two groups. By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater. The study reported increased activity that occurred between June and August 2009 (200 events), compared to a total of about 250 earthquakes recorded between September 2006 and August 2009. Participants Adult (18–80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). All ash dispersion models for this geographic region were produced by the VAAC in London. , On 22 March, a flow meter device in the Krossá glacial river (which drains Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull glaciers) in the Þórsmörk area (a few kilometres north-west of the erupting location) started to record a sudden rise in water level and water temperature – the total water temperature rose by 6 °C (11 °F) over a two-hour period, which had never happened so quickly in the Krossá river since measurements began. The onset of the eruption was heralded on 20 March 2010 by the opening of an eruptive fissure at Fimmvorduhals, an area located between the Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull ice caps and bordering the Katla volcano, where the eruptive activity displayed mainly Hawaiian features until 12 April 2010. Analyzing the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption using satellite remote sensing, lidar and WRF-Chem dispersion and tracking model P. W. Webley,1,2 T. Steensen,1,2 M. Stuefer,1 G. Grell,3 S. Freitas,4 and M. Pavolonis5 Received 1 September 2011; revised 23 May 2012; … Animated Video created using Animaker - https://www.animaker.com Overview of the events that took place in Iceland. , By 26 February 2010, the global positioning system (GPS) equipment used by the Iceland Meteorological Office at Þorvaldseyri farm in the Eyjafjöll area (around 15 km (9.3 mi) south-east of the location of the recent eruption) had shown 3 cm of displacement of the local crust in a southward direction, of which a 1-cm displacement had taken place within four days. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallaj¨okull volcano in southern Iceland ﬁrst began as a 500 m long ﬁssure on 20 March 2010. Objectives To examine the long-term development of physical and mental health following exposure to a volcanic eruption.  Other notable volcanic eruptions in recent years include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 1991 of VEI 6. Large-scale release of sulphur dioxide into the troposphere also poses a potential health risk, especially to people with pre-existing breathing disorders. , At the mouth of the crater, the gases, ejecta, and volcanic plume have created a rare weather phenomenon known as volcanic lightning (or a "dirty thunderstorm"). The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. Overall, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption led to a booming economy, which has expanded by 10 percent since its near-bankruptcy.  When rocks and other ejecta collide with one another, they create static electricity. This article is of interest to multiple WikiProjects. Aim: Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters may affect survivor's physical and mental health. , The grounding of European flights avoided about 3.44×108 kg of CO2 emissions per day, while the volcano emitted about 1.5×108 kg of CO2 per day.. 1), which is overlain by a 200 m thick ice-cap bearing the same name, has produced three eruptions since the tenth century: in 1612, from 1821 to 1823, and the recent 2010 events.Past eruptions have produced very fined-grained ash deposits typically found within a 10 km radius from the Eyjafjallajökull crater (Larsen et al. Redoubt 2009. The participation rate … 1999 ; Sigmundsson et al. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. Recent (last month) symptoms were more increased, for example cough, OR 2.6 (95%CI 1.7-3.8) and phlegm, OR 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.2), eye irritation, OR 2.9 (95%CI 1.8-4.5) and runny or irritated nose, OR 2.0 (95%CI 1.4-2.9). Background : The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010 posed an opportunity to study health effects of a volcanic eruption in a society with strong infrastructure. The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. Explosive activity from this new crater was observed with emission of small quantities of ash. This second phase erupted trachyandesite. Deep earthquakes were detected near the crust mantle-boundary … Near real-time volcanic cloud data. Fluoride poisoning can start in sheep at a diet with fluorine content of 25 ppm. Eruptive activity during 4–8 May 2010 was characterized based on short‐duration physical The Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Fig. The last eruption of Eyjafjallajökull before the 2010 events was an extended event lasting 14 months from 1821 December to 1823 January. The earthquake swarm was followed by the onset of a seismic eruption tremor. In response to concerns that volcanic ash ejected during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland would damage aircraft engines, the controlled airspace of many European countries was closed to instrument flight rules traffic, resulting in what at the time was the largest air-traffic shut-down since World War II. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Fig.  On 20 April 2010 Icelandic President Ólafur Grímsson said, "the time for Katla to erupt is coming close ... we [Iceland] have prepared ... it is high time for European governments and airline authorities all over the world to start planning for the eventual Katla eruption.". 2010 ). About 30 minutes played in 18 seconds. 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was well‐monitored by the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) using multiple geo-physical and geological data streams [Gudmundsson et al., 2010; Sigmundsson et al., 2010]. The data was analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, education and smoking status. The eruption was declared officially over in October 2010, when snow on the glacier did not melt. Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address, Eyjafjallajökull 2010: Respiratory morbidity and symptoms following exposure to a volcanic eruption, Systemic inflammatory profile associated with exposure time to burning sugarcane, Clinico-radiological and functional assessment of respiratory symptomatics with either exposure to biomass fuel smoke or tobacco smoking, Burnt sugarcane harvesting is associated with short and long term alterations in systemic and pulmonary inflammatory markers, 6.2 Occupational and Environmental Health. The first eruption phase ejected olivine basaltic andesite lava several hundred metres into the air in what is known as an effusive eruption. These two erupting fissures shared the same magma chamber, according to geophysicists. In the early phases of the eruption, fine-grained ash was ejected up to 10 km into the atmosphere, disturbing air traffic in Europe for days. 2010 eruption, the Eyjafjallajökull erupted in 1821 to 1823 Figure 1. A series of vents along a 2-km-long north–south-oriented fissure was active, with meltwater flowing mostly down the northern slopes of the volcano, but also to the south. However, on March 20, 2010, the lava began to flow and there were several series of small eruptions which ejected volcanic ash into the atmosphere. The shutdown had a knock on impact on the economy and cultural events across Europe. 2.5.2010. , A fissure opened up about 150 metres (490 ft) in length running in a north-east to south-west direction, with 10 to 12 erupting lava craters ejecting lava at a temperature around 1,000 °C (1,800 °F) up to 150 m (490 ft) into the air. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. High-fluoride Hekla eruptions pose a threat to foraging livestock, especially sheep.  The concentration of water-soluble fluoride was one-third of the concentration typical in Hekla eruptions, with a mean value of 104 mg of fluoride per kg of ash. Sigmundsson et al. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. During the eruption in 2010 radar scans were made every 5 min and the data archived at the Icelandic Meteo-rological Office. Craters in autumn. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. An earthquake swarm began under Eyjafjallajokull volcano in January 2010. 1999 ; Sigmundsson et al. A news item involving 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull was featured on Wikipedia's Main Page in the In the news section on 15 April 2010. On 14 April 2010, an explosive summit crater eruption began in Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier), a volcano that is situated in south Iceland . Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The erupting lava cooled very fast, which created a cloud of highly abrasive, glass-rich ash. Eruptions > Eyjafjallajökull 2010. Conclusion: Exposure to volcanic ash may increase respiratory morbidity symptoms six months post eruption, but long-term consequences are still unknown. The effects of the eruption were recorded in various places in Europe up to the present day. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in March and April 2010 posed significant challenges for the people of Iceland as well as millions of people across Europe whose airplanes were grounded due to the high concentrations of volcanic ash. Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: ... respiratory morbidity and mortality and increased irri- ... longer time periods to volcanic ash and gases have been associated with increases in cardiovascular symptoms8 and increased rates of chronic bronchitis and other respira-  On 23 March, a small vapour explosion took place, when hot magma came into contact with nearby snowdrifts, emitting a vapour plume which reached an altitude of 7 km (4.3 mi), and was detected on radar from the Meteorological Institute of Iceland. In 2010 2000-3000 metres cubed per second of flood water. Unlike the earlier eruption phase, the second phase occurred beneath glacial ice. During the ice capped Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in April-May 2010, IMO monitored the volcanic activity through various geophysical sensors (seismic, strain, GPS), river runoff from the glacier and the behaviour of the volcanic eruption cloud (see slide show). The first phase of the 2010 eruption began late on the evening of 20 March at the Eyjafjallajökull. Immediately before the eruption, the depth of the seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. IES also noted that the eruption continue with less explosive activity. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption.Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). , After a short hiatus in eruptive activity, and a large increase in seismic activity 23:00 on 13 April and 1:00 on 14 April, a new set of craters opened early in the morning of 14 April 2010 under the volcano's ice-covered central summit caldera.  By 21 May 2010, the second eruption phase had subsided to the point that no further lava or ash was being produced. , On 21 June 2010, data from seismic recorders in the area indicated that the frequency and strength of earth tremors had diminished, but were continuing. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption.  Many flights within, to, and from Europe were cancelled following 14 April 2010 eruption, and although no commercial aircraft were damaged, the engines of some military aircraft were harmed. Mai 2010. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Between mid-2000 and 2009, earthquakes occurred intermittently at rates of 1–4 events per month, while deformation remained negligible (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). In addition to volcanic ash being very hazardous to aircraft, the location of this eruption directly under the jet stream ensured that the ash was carried into the heavily used airspace over northern and central Europe. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A short time-lapse from 17 April 2010. , Seismic activity started at the end of 2009 and gradually increased in intensity until on 20 March 2010, a small eruption began, rated as a 1 on the volcanic explosivity index.. On 14 April 2010 the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano (63.63°N, 19.62°W, 1666 m asl) on Iceland started to send a vast ash plume into the troposphere. Ash ejection from this phase of the eruption was small, rising to no more than 4 km (2.5 mi) into the atmosphere. An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). Some Clips & Images of the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Music Credits: Dreaming in 432Hz Unicorn Heads Youtube Audio Library. Setting In spring 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted. c) Describe the Lava flow produced by the eruption. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was seen at the north slopes of Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, lighting up the sky above the eruptive site. 1), which is overlain by a 200 m thick ice-cap bearing the same name, has produced three eruptions since the tenth century: in 1612, from 1821 to 1823, and the recent 2010 events.Past eruptions have produced very fined-grained ash deposits typically found within a 10 km radius from the Eyjafjallajökull crater (Larsen et al. There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. Sitemap . Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. , Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced [ˈɛɪjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl] (listen)) is one of Iceland's smaller ice caps located in the far south of the island.  The Civil Protection Department of the Icelandic Police produced regular reports about access to the area, including a map of the restricted area around Eyjafjallajokull, from which the public was forbidden. Eyjafjallajökull eruption 2010 - the role of IMO Sigrún Karlsdóttir, Guðrún Nína Petersen, Halldór Björnsson, Halldór Pétursson, Hróbjartur Þorsteinsson, Þórður Arason.  The seismic activity continued to increase, and from 3 to 5 March, close to 3,000 earthquakes were measured having their epicentre at the volcano. A new phase of the eruption began at approximately 01:00 UTC on 14 April, It was a bit smaller, around 300 m (980 ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. Neither phase of the eruption was unusually powerful.  Crustal expansion continued at Þorvaldseyri for two days after the eruption began, but was slowly decreasing whilst the volcanic activity was increasing. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. In late summer 2009, a subtle shift at a GPS station on the volcano's flank prompted Sigmundsson and his colleagues to begin monitoring the mountain more closely. Questions: a) When did the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull begin and how long did the eruption last? Cold water from melted ice quickly chilled the lava, causing it to fragment into highly abrasive glass particles that were then carried into the eruption plume. As to why just the month, it's the way that … These institutes are the IMO, the Institute of Earth Sciences of the University of Iceland and the Department of Civil Protection This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. Leaky Caldron 09:44, 18 April 2010 (UTC) Consequences sounds good. It quickly dispersed over Europe.  One previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821 is recorded as having lasted for over two years, but no single set of major eruptions is known to have lasted more than 'several days'. Beginning on 14 April 2010, the eruption entered a second phase and created an ash cloud that led to the closure of most of the European IFR airspace from 15 until 20 April 2010. Late on 20 March 2010 an eruption began at Fimmvörðuháls, an area around 1,000 m elevation in a ~ 2-km-wide pass of ice-free land between Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull.  In 1783, 79% of the Icelandic sheep stock were killed, probably as a result of fluorosis caused by the eruption of Laki.  Ash from the current Eyjafjallajökull eruption contains one-third the concentration typical in Hekla eruptions, with a mean value of 104 mg of fluoride per kg of ash.  The April–May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) was characterized by a nearly continuous injection of tephra into the atmosphere that affected various economic sectors in Iceland and caused a global interruption of air traffic. The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of the exposed population compared to control population.  Six months later, the population living in the area had more respiratory symptoms than a control group from North Iceland, with no ashfall. This, with the abundant water-ice at the summit, aids in making lightning.. European Respiratory Society442 Glossop RoadSheffield S10 2PXUnited KingdomTel: +44 114 2672860Email: email@example.com, Print ISSN: 0903-1936 For clarity the small volcanic system Tindfjallajökull is not shown. Craters in autumn.  Smoke and ash from eruptions reduce visibility for visual navigation, and microscopic debris in the ash can sandblast windscreens and melt in the heat of aircraft turbine engines, damaging engines and making them shut down. Disclaimer: the views expressed on this site do not imply endorsement by IAVCEI or its affiliate organizations. 2.1. Visual observations were greatly restricted due to cloud cover over the volcano, but an aeroplane of the Icelandic Coast Guard imaged eruptive craters with radar instruments. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. März kam es zu mehreren Eruptionen des Vulkans mit einem großen Ausstoß an Asche. Discrete ash bursts merged at higher altitude and formed a sustained quasi-continuous eruption column. This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among those living closest to the volcano. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). This was 10–20 times the average discharge rate in the preceding flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls. Due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made web camera observation of the volcano impossible. Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. As long as the fissure was not near the glacier, the risk of flooding was minimal; however, the fissure could extend into the ice cap, thereby greatly increasing the risk of flooding. The last eruption of Eyjafjallajökull before the 2010 events was an extended event lasting 14 months from 1821 December to 1823 January. Eruptionen 2010. The participation rate was 72%. , Volcanic ash is a major hazard to aircraft. Vodafone and the Icelandic telecommunications company Míla installed webcams, giving views of the eruption from Valahnúkur, Hvolsvöllur, and Þórólfsfell. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Where ash fall was significant, all horses had to be sheltered indoors. By way of comparison, the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 was rated as 5 on the VEI, and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was rated as a 6. On 14 April 2010, however, the eruption entered an explosive phase and ejected fine glass-rich ash to over 8 km (5.0 mi) into the atmosphere. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. In October 2010, Ármann Höskuldsson, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences, stated that the eruption was officially over, although the area was still geothermally active and might erupt again. 2010 ). , During the eruption, the BBC television news announcers did not try to pronounce the name "Eyjafjallajökull," but called it "the Iceland volcano.". Image courtesy of James Ashworth. About 20 countries closed their airspace to commercial jet traffic and it affected approximately 10 million travellers. Discussion: Six months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption our results indicate that the presence of volcanic ash is associated with two to three times higher recent upper airway symptom rates among the exposed population compared to the unexposed. The direction of the jet stream was unusually stable at the time of the eruption's second phase, continuously southeast. It further indicated that the locations of most of the earthquakes in 2009 occurred between 8 to 12 km (5.0 to 7.5 mi) depth east of the volcano's top crater. Photos of the 2010 eruptions by Fred Kamphues, Volcanic Eyjafjallajökull run off: Seljalandsfoss Waterfall (binaural recording optimised for headphones), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2010_eruptions_of_Eyjafjallajökull&oldid=990444873, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, large-scale disruption to air travel, smaller effects on farming in Iceland. 2007], Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and lastly Grímsvötn in 2011. Instead, the police closed the road to Þórsmörk and the four-wheel-drive trail from Skógar village to the Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, but these roads and trails were reopened on 29 March, though only for suitable four-wheel drive vehicles. Agriculture is important in this region of Iceland, and farmers near the volcano have been warned not to let their livestock drink from contaminated streams and water sources, as high concentrations of fluoride can have deadly renal and hepatic effects, particularly in sheep. The Institute of Earth Sciences made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption on 14 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull. Weil keine Vergleichswerte existierten, wurde der Flugverkehr über Nord- und Mitteleuropa in weiten Teilen und für mehrere Tage eingestellt. Ausbruch des Eyjafjallajökull, 13. IVATF/4-IP/3-2-report on the eruption from the institutes in Iceland that did monitoring and research on the eruption. , Samples of volcanic ash collected near the eruption showed a silica concentration of 58%—much higher than in the lava flows. The molten lava flowed more than 4,000 m (13,000 ft) to the north-east of the fissure and into Hrunagil canyon, forming a lava fall more than 200 m (660 ft) long and slowly approaching Þórsmörk, but had not yet[update] reached the flood plains of Krossá. Hence, there is much speculation that the 2010 eruption may also be followed shortly by activity at Katla. "Volcano tourism" quickly sprang up in the wake of the eruption, with local tour companies offering day trips to see the volcano. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. The magma discharge rate was about 300 cubic metres per second (11,000 cu ft/s) or 750 t/s. THE STUDENT ECONOMIC REVIEW VOL.XXVIII 129 EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL AND THE 2010 CLOSURE OF EUROPEAN AIRSPACE: CRISIS MANAGEMENT, E CONOMIC IMPACT, AND TACKLING FUTURE RISKS ELIN THORA ELLERTSDOTTIR Senior Sophister The 2010 eruptions at Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland struck fear into the hearts of air - line executives and news presenters alike.  The thick layer of ash that had fallen on some Icelandic pastures and farms at Raufarfell had become wet and compact, making it very difficult to continue farming, harvesting, or grazing livestock.. About 500 farmers and their families had to escape from the areas of Fljótshlíð, Eyjafjöll, and Landeyjar were evacuated overnight (including a group of 30 schoolchildren and their three teachers from Caistor Grammar School in England), and flights to and from Reykjavík and Keflavík International Airport were postponed, but on the evening of 21 March, domestic and international air traffic was allowed again. 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Irritation did not melt traffic and it affected approximately 10 million travellers November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 after... As a 500 m long fissure on 20 March at the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull residents... Eruptions and other volcanic systems in the form of ﬁre fountains and located the!